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“狼性文化”的恶果与伟大企业帝国的没落

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年06月27日 13:03:27
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(,跟)(兔)(子)(有)(什)(么)(关)(系)(……
  文)(章)(核)(心)(就)(是)(几)(点)(,改)(造)(思)(想)(,增)(加)(流)(动)(,业)(绩)(挂)(钩)(,按)(季)(度)(末)(位)(淘)(汰)(。狼)(性)(文)(化)(是)(最)(好)(理)(解)(,也)(是)(最)(容)(易)(操)(作)(的)(,以)(团)(队)(为)(单)(位)(,以)(业)(绩)(为)(标)(准)(,适)(者)(生)(存)(,残)(忍)(而)(有)(效)(。就)(像)(文)(章)(说)(的)(,狼)(总)(担)(心)(自)(己)(饿)(死)(,危)(机)(意)(识)(特)(别)(强)(。也)(就)(是)(说)(,不)(担)(心)(自)(己)(被)(饿)(死)((淘)(汰)()的)(员)(工)(,进)(攻)(性)(不)(强)(,做)(不)(出)(业)(绩)(的)(员)(工)(,都)(不)(是)(好)(员)(工)(,都)(得)(走)(。
  但)(其)(实)(人)(性)(文)(化)(与)(狼)(性)(文)(化)(都)(可)(以)(追)(求)(效)(率)(,团)(队)(协)(作)(和)(自)(发)(性)(,区)(别)(在)(于)(激)(发)(的)(手)(段)(,狼)(性)(更)(多)(的)(是)(依)(靠)(恐)(怖)((被)(饿)(死)(,被)(淘)(汰)(的)(恐)(惧)()与)(金)(钱)(,衡)(量)(的)(标)(准)(是)(“绩)(效)(”。而)(人)(性)(管)(理)(,更)(多)(的)(是)(依)(靠)(信)(任)(、包)(容)(和)(成)(功)(,与)(必)(然)(伴)(随)(而)(来)(的)(金)(钱)(,衡)(量)(的)(标)(准)(是)(“成)(就)(”。
  我)(先)(说)(下)(狼)(性)(文)(化)(下)(的)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(。引)(用)(下)(该)(文)(章)(的)(说)(法)(:
  “把)(利)(益)(与)(成)(绩)(挂)(钩)(。团)(队)(人)(少)(了)(,就)(给)(涨)(薪)(留)(出)(大)(量)(空)(间)(。把)(腾)(出)(来)(的)(工)(资)(,加)(给)(留)(下)(来)(和)(新)(进)(来)(的)(有)(狼)(性)(的)(人)(。把)(兔)(窝)(变)(狼)(群)(,核)(心)(是)(把)(每)(头)(狼)(的)(利)(益)(与)(公)(司)(密)(切)(相)(关)(,这)(样)(才)(能)(激)(发)(狼)(性)(。”
  那)(么)(业)(绩)(作)(为)(衡)(量)(贡)(献)(的)(标)(准)(,优)(胜)(劣)(汰)(,有)(什)(么)(问)(题)(呢)(?
  一)(、狼)(性)(文)(化)(下)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(带)(来)(的)(恶)(果)(,索)(尼)(帝)(国)(的)(陨)(落)(
  这)(里)(举)(一)(个)(曾)(经)(伟)(大)(的)(帝)(国)(江)(河)(日)(下)(的)(例)(子)(,索)(尼)(。按)(照)(索)(尼)(前)(常)(务)(董)(事)(天)(外)(伺)(郎)(说)(法)(,正)(是)(“绩)(效)(主)(义)(毁)(了)(索)(尼)(”。
  这)(里)(我)(引)(用)(一)(篇)(“参)(考)(消)(息)(/世)(界)(经)(济)(”对)(索)(尼)(高)(层)(的)(采)(访)(翻)(译)(稿)((我)(重)(新)(整)(理)(了)(下)(核)(心)(内)(容)(),很)(好)(的)(诠)(释)(了)(狼)(性)(文)(化)(下)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(所)(带)(来)(的)(创)(造)(性)(消)(失)(!
  关)(于)(创)(造)(性)(消)(失)(,索)(尼)(高)(层)(总)(结)(说)(索)(尼)(的)(衰)(败)(主)(要)(原)(因)(就)(是)(“激)(情)(集)(团)(”不)(存)(在)(了)(。所)(谓)(“激)(情)(集)(团)(”,是)(指)(公)(司)(中)(那)(些)(不)(知)(疲)(倦)(、全)(心)(投)(入)(开)(发)(的)(集)(体)(。在)(创)(业)(初)(期)(,这)(样)(的)(“激)(情)(集)(团)(”接)(连)(不)(断)(地)(开)(发)(出)(了)(具)(有)(独)(创)(性)(的)(产)(品)(。从)(事)(技)(术)(开)(发)(的)(团)(体)(进)(入)(开)(发)(的)(忘)(我)(状)(态)(时)(,就)(成)(了)(“激)(情)(集)(团)(”。要)(进)(入)(这)(种)(状)(态)(,其)(中)(最)(重)(要)(的)(条)(件)(就)(是)(“基)(于)(自)(发)(的)(动)(机)(”的)(行)(动)(。比)(如)(“想)(通)(过)(自)(己)(的)(努)(力)(开)(发)(机)(器)(人)(”,就)(是)(一)(种)(发)(自)(自)(身)(的)(冲)(动)(。
  与)(此)(相)(反)(就)(是)(“外)(部)(的)(动)(机)(”,比)(如)(想)(赚)(钱)(、升)(职)(或)(出)(名)(,即)(想)(得)(到)(来)(自)(外)(部)(回)(报)(的)(心)(理)(状)(态)(。如)(果)(没)(有)(发)(自)(内)(心)(的)(热)(情)(,而)(是)(出)(于)(“想)(赚)(钱)(或)(升)(职)(”的)(世)(俗)(动)(机)(,那)(是)(无)(法)(成)(为)(“开)(发)(狂)(人)(”的)(。
  索)(尼)(高)(层)(的)(对)(狼)(性)(文)(化)(下)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(带)(来)(的)(恶)(果)(,索)(尼)(帝)(国)(的)(陨)(落)(。
  1、“挑)(战)(精)(神)(”消)(失)(了)(,今)(天)(的)(索)(尼)(职)(工)(好)(像)(没)(有)(了)(自)(发)(的)(动)(机)(
  为)(什)(么)(呢)(?我)(认)(为)(是)(因)(为)(实)(行)(了)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(。绩)(效)(主)(义)(就)(是)(:“业)(务)(成)(果)(和)(金)(钱)(报)(酬)(直)(接)(挂)(钩)(,职)(工)(是)(为)(了)(拿)(到)(更)(多)(报)(酬)(而)(努)(力)(工)(作)(。”如)(果)(外)(在)(的)(动)(机)(增)(强)(,那)(么)(自)(发)(的)(动)(机)(就)(会)(受)(到)(控)(制)(。如)(果)(总)(是)(说)(“你)(努)(力)(干)(我)(就)(给)(你)(加)(工)(资)(”,那)(么)(以)(工)(作)(为)(乐)(趣)(这)(种)(内)(在)(的)(意)(识)(就)(会)(受)(到)(抑)(制)(。
  从)(1995年)(左)(右)(开)(始)(,索)(尼)(公)(司)(逐)(渐)(实)(行)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(,成)(立)(专)(门)(机)(构)(,制)(定)(非)(常)(详)(细)(的)(评)(价)(标)(准)(,并)(根)(据)(对)(每)(个)(人)(的)(评)(价)(确)(定)(报)(酬)(。
  但)(是)(井)(深)(的)(想)(法)(与)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(恰)(恰)(相)(反)(,他)(有)(一)(句)(口)(头)(禅)(;“工)(作)(的)(报)(酬)(是)(工)(作)(。”就)(是)(说)(,如)(果)(你)(干)(了)(件)(受)(到)(好)(评)(的)(工)(作)(,下)(次)(你)(还)(可)(以)(再)(干)(更)(好)(、更)(有)(意)(思)(的)(工)(作)(。在)(井)(深)(的)(时)(代)(,许)(多)(人)(都)(是)(为)(追)(求)(工)(作)(乐)(趣)(而)(埋)(头)(苦)(干)(。但)(是)(,因)(实)(行)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(,职)(工)(逐)(渐)(失)(去)(工)(作)(热)(情)(。在)(这)(种)(情)(况)(下)(是)(无)(法)(产)(生)(“激)(情)(集)(团)(”的)(。为)(衡)(量)(业)(绩)(,首)(先)(必)(须)(把)(各)(种)(工)(作)(要)(素)(量)(化)(。但)(是)(工)(作)(是)(无)(法)(简)(单)(量)(化)(的)(。公)(司)(为)(统)(计)(业)(绩)(,花)(费)(了)(大)(量)(的)(精)(力)(和)(时)(间)(,而)(在)(真)(正)(的)(工)(作)(上)(却)(敷)(衍)(了)(事)(,出)(现)(了)(本)(末)(倒)(置)(的)(倾)(向)(。
  因)(为)(要)(考)(核)(业)(绩)(,几)(乎)(所)(有)(人)(都)(提)(出)(容)(易)(实)(现)(的)(低)(目)(标)(,可)(以)(说)(索)(尼)(精)(神)(的)(核)(心)(即)(“挑)(战)(精)(神)(”消)(失)(了)(。因)(实)(行)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(,索)(尼)(公)(司)(内)(追)(求)(眼)(前)(利)(益)(的)(风)(气)(蔓)(延)(。这)(样)(一)(来)(,短)(期)(内)(难)(见)(效)(益)(的)(工)(作)(,比)(如)(产)(品)(质)(量)(检)(验)(以)(及)(“老)(化)(处)(理)(”程)(序)(上)(的)(问)(题)(是)(否)(是)(是)(上)(面)(提)(到)(的)(锂)(电)(池)(着)(火)(事)(故)(的)(直)(接)(原)(因)(,现)(在)(尚)(无)(法)(下)(结)(论)(。但)(是)(我)(想)(指)(出)(的)(是)(,不)(管)(是)(什)(么)(样)(的)(企)(业)(,只)(要)(实)(行)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(,一)(些)(扎)(实)(细)(致)(的)(工)(作)(就)(容)(易)(被)(忽)(视)(。
  索)(尼)(公)(司)(不)(仅)(对)(每)(个)(人)(进)(行)(考)(核)(,还)(对)(每)(个)(业)(务)(部)(门)(进)(行)(经)(济)(考)(核)(,由)(此)(决)(定)(整)(个)(整)(个)(业)(务)(部)(门)(的)(报)(酬)(。最)(后)(导)(致)(的)(结)(果)(是)(,业)(务)(部)(门)(互)(相)(拆)(台)(,都)(想)(方)(设)(法)(从)(公)(司)(的)(整)(体)(利)(益)(中)(为)(本)(部)(门)(多)(捞)(取)(好)(处)(。
  2、“团)(队)(精)(神)(消)(失)(了)(”
  2004年)(2月)(底)(,我)(在)(美)(国)(见)(到)(了)(奇)(凯)(岑)(特)(米)(哈)(伊)(教)(授)(,并)(聆)(听)(了)(他)(的)(讲)(演)(。讲)(演)(一)(开)(始)(,大)(屏)(幕)(上)(放)(映)(的)(一)(段)(话)(是)(我)(进)(入)(索)(尼)(公)(司)(以)(来)(多)(次)(读)(过)(的)(,只)(不)(过)(被)(译)(成)(了)(英)(文)(。
  “建)(立)(公)(司)(的)(目)(的)(:建)(立)(理)(想)(的)(工)(厂)(,在)(这)(个)(工)(厂)(里)(,应)(该)(有)(自)(由)(、豁)(达)(、愉)(快)(的)(气)(氛)(,让)(每)(个)(认)(真)(工)(作)(的)(技)(术)(人)(员)(最)(大)(限)(度)(的)(发)(挥)(技)(能)(。”
  这)(正)(是)(索)(尼)(公)(司)(的)(创)(立)(宗)(旨)(。索)(尼)(公)(司)(失)(去)(活)(力)(,就)(是)(因)(为)(实)(行)(了)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(。没)(有)(想)(到)(,我)(是)(在)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(的)(发)(源)(地)(美)(国)(,聆)(听)(用)(索)(尼)(的)(创)(建)(宗)(旨)(来)(否)(定)(绩)(效)(主)(义)(。这)(使)(我)(深)(受)(触)(动)(。绩)(效)(主)(义)(企)(图)(把)(人)(的)(能)(力)(量)(化)(,以)(此)(做)(出)(客)(观)(、公)(正)(的)(评)(价)(。但)(我)(认)(为)(事)(实)(上)(做)(不)(到)(。它)(的)(最)(大)(弊)(端)(是)(搞)(坏)(了)(公)(司)(内)(的)(气)(氛)(。上)(司)(不)(把)(部)(下)(当)(有)(感)(情)(的)(人)(看)(待)(,而)(是)(一)(切)(都)(看)(指)(标)(、用)(“评)(价)(的)(目)(光)(”审)(视)(部)(下)(。
  不)(久)(前)(我)(在)(整)(理)(藏)(书)(时)(翻)(出)(了)(一)(封)(令)(我)(感)(慨)(不)(已)(的)(信)(稿)(。那)(是)(我)(为)(开)(发)(天)(线)(到)(东)(北)(大)(学)(进)(修)(时)(,给)(上)(司)(写)(信)(打)(的)(草)(稿)(。有)(一)(次)(我)(逃)(学)(跑)(去)(滑)(雪)(,刚)(好)(赶)(上)(索)(尼)(公)(司)(的)(部)(长)(到)(学)(校)(来)(视)(察)(。我)(写)(那)(封)(信)(是)(为)(了)(向)(部)(长)(道)(歉)(。实)(际)(上)(,在)(我)(身)(上)(不)(止)(一)(次)(发)(生)(过)(那)(类)(事)(情)(,但)(我)(从)(来)(没)(有)(受)(到)(上)(司)(的)(斥)(责)(。虽)(然)(这)(与)(我)(取)(得)(了)(研)(究)(成)(果)(有)(关)(,但)(我)(认)(为)(最)(根)(本)(的)(是)(他)(们)(信)(任)(我)(。上)(司)(相)(信)(,虽)(然)(我)(贪)(玩)(,但)(是)(对)(研)(究)(工)(作)(非)(常)(认)(真)(。当)(时)(我)(的)(上)(司)(不)(是)(用)(“评)(价)(的)(眼)(光)(”看)(我)(,而)(是)(把)(我)(当)(成)(自)(己)(的)(孩)(子)(。对)(企)(业)(员)(工)(来)(说)(,需)(要)(的)(就)(是)(这)(种)(温)(情)(和)(信)(任)(。
  过)(去)(的)(一)(些)(日)(本)(企)(业)(,即)(便)(部)(下)(做)(得)(有)(点)(出)(格)(,上)(司)(也)(不)(那)(么)(苛)(求)(,工)(作)(失)(败)(了)(也)(敢)(于)(为)(部)(下)(承)(担)(责)(任)(。另)(一)(方)(面)(,尽)(管)(部)(下)(在)(喝)(酒)(的)(时)(候)(说)(上)(司)(的)(坏)(话)(,但)(在)(实)(际)(工)(作)(中)(仍)(非)(常)(支)(持)(上)(司)(。后)(来)(强)(化)(了)(管)(理)(,实)(行)(了)(看)(上)(去)(很)(合)(理)(的)(评)(价)(制)(度)(。于)(是)(大)(家)(都)(极)(力)(逃)(避)(责)(任)(。这)(样)(以)(来)(就)(不)(可)(能)(有)(团)(队)(精)(神)(。
  3、创)(新)(先)(锋)(沦)(为)(落)(伍)(者)(
  不)(单)(是)(索)(尼)(,现)(在)(许)(多)(公)(司)(都)(花)(费)(大)(量)(人)(力)(物)(力)(引)(进)(评)(价)(体)(制)(。但)(是)(,这)(些)(企)(业)(的)(业)(绩)(似)(乎)(都)(在)(下)(滑)(。索)(尼)(公)(司)(是)(最)(早)(引)(进)(美)(国)(式)(合)(理)(主)(义)(经)(营)(理)(念)(的)(企)(业)(之)(一)(。而)(公)(司)(创)(始)(人)(井)(深)(的)(经)(营)(理)(念)(谈)(不)(上)(所)(谓)(“合)(理)(”。1968年)(10月)(上)(市)(的)(单)(枪)(三)(束)(彩)(色)(显)(像)(管)(电)(视)(机)(的)(开)(发)(,就)(是)(最)(有)(代)(表)(性)(的)(例)(子)(。当)(时)(索)(尼)(在)(电)(视)(机)(的)(市)(场)(竞)(争)(中)(处)(于)(劣)(势)(,几)(乎)(到)(了)(破)(产)(的)(边)(缘)(,即)(便)(如)(此)(,井)(深)(仍)(坚)(持)(独)(自)(开)(发)(单)(枪)(彩)(色)(显)(像)(管)(电)(视)(机)(。这)(种)(彩)(色)(电)(视)(机)(画)(质)(好)(,一)(上)(市)(就)(大)(受)(好)(评)(。其)(后)(30年)(,这)(种)(电)(视)(机)(的)(销)(售)(一)(直)(是)(索)(尼)(公)(司)(的)(主)(要)(收)(入)(来)(源)(。
  但)(是)(,“干)(别)(人)(不)(干)(的)(事)(情)(”这)(种)(追)(求)(独)(立)(开)(发)(的)(精)(神)(,恐)(怕)(不)(符)(合)(今)(天)(只)(看)(收)(益)(的)(企)(业)(管)(理)(理)(念)(。索)(尼)(当)(时)(如)(果)(采)(用)(和)(其)(他)(公)(司)(一)(样)(的)(技)(术)(,立)(刻)(就)(可)(以)(在)(市)(场)(上)(销)(售)(自)(己)(的)(产)(品)(,当)(初)(也)(许)(就)(不)(会)(有)(破)(产)(的)(担)(心)(。投)(入)(巨)(额)(费)(用)(和)(很)(多)(时)(间)(进)(行)(的)(技)(术)(开)(发)(取)(得)(成)(功)(后)(,为)(了)(制)(造)(产)(品)(,还)(需)(要)(有)(更)(大)(规)(模)(的)(设)(备)(投)(资)(,亦)(需)(要)(招)(募)(新)(员)(工)(。但)(是)(,从)(长)(期)(角)(度)(看)(,索)(尼)(公)(司)(积)(累)(了)(技)(术)(。此)(外)(,人)(们)(都)(认)(为)(“索)(尼)(是)(追)(求)(独)(自)(技)(术)(的)(公)(司)(”,大)(大)(提)(高)(了)(索)(尼)(的)(品)(牌)(形)(象)(。
  更)(重)(要)(的)(是)(,这)(种)(独)(自)(开)(发)(能)(给)(索)(尼)(员)(工)(带)(来)(荣)(誉)(感)(,他)(们)(都)(为)(自)(己)(是)(“最)(尖)(端)(企)(业)(的)(一)(员)(”而)(感)(到)(骄)(傲)(。单)(枪)(三)(束)(彩)(色)(显)(像)(管)(电)(视)(机)(之)(所)(以)(能)(长)(期)(成)(为)(索)(尼)(公)(司)(的)(收)(入)(来)(源)(,是)(因)(为)(技)(术)(开)(发)(人)(员)(怀)(着)(荣)(誉)(感)(和)(极)(大)(热)(情)(,不)(断)(对)(技)(术)(进)(行)(改)(良)(。具)(有)(讽)(刺)(意)(味)(的)(是)(,国)(单)(枪)(三)(束)(彩)(色)(显)(像)(管)(电)(视)(机)(获)(得)(成)(功)(的)(的)(索)(尼)(,却)(在)(液)(晶)(和)(等)(离)(子)(薄)(型)(电)(视)(机)(的)(开)(发)(方)(面)(落)(后)(了)(。实)(际)(上)(,井)(深)(曾)(说)(过)(:“我)(们)(必)(须)(自)(己)(开)(发)(出)(让)(单)(枪)(三)(束)(彩)(色)(显)(像)(管)(电)(视)(机)(成)(为)(落)(伍)(产)(品)(的)(新)(技)(术)(。”包)(括)(我)(自)(己)(在)(内)(的)(索)(尼)(公)(司)(高)(管)(没)(有)(铭)(记)(井)(深)(的)(话)(。
  4、高)(层)(主)(管)(是)(关)(键)(
  今)(天)(的)(索)(尼)(与)(井)(深)(时)(代)(的)(最)(大)(区)(别)(是)(什)(么)(呢)(?那)(就)(是)(在)(“自)(豪)(感)(”方)(面)(的)(差)(别)(。当)(年)(创)(始)(人)(井)(深)(和)(公)(司)(员)(工)(都)(有)(一)(种)(自)(信)(心)(:努)(力)(争)(先)(,创)(造)(历)(史)(。但)(是)(索)(尼)(并)(不)(在)(意)(其)(它)(公)(司)(在)(开)(发)(什)(么)(产)(品)(。
  今)(天)(的)(索)(尼)(已)(经)(没)(有)(了)(向)(新)(目)(标)(挑)(战)(的)(“体)(力)(”,同)(时)(也)(失)(去)(了)(把)(新)(技)(术)(拿)(出)(来)(让)(社)(会)(检)(验)(的)(胆)(识)(。在)(导)(致)(索)(尼)(受)(挫)(的)(几)(个)(因)(素)(中)(,公)(司)(最)(高)(领)(导)(人)(的)(态)(度)(是)(其)(中)(最)(根)(本)(的)(原)(因)(。在)(索)(尼)(充)(满)(生)(机)(、蓬)(勃)(发)(展)(的)(时)(候)(,公)(司)(内)(流)(行)(这)(样)(的)(说)(法)(:“如)(果)(你)(真)(的)(有)(了)(新)(点)(子)(,那)(就)(背)(着)(上)(司)(把)(它)(搞)(出)(来)(。”也)(就)(是)(说)(,与)(其)(口)(头)(上)(说)(说)(,不)(如)(拿)(出)(真)(东)(西)(来)(更)(直)(接)(。但)(是)(如)(果)(上)(司)(总)(是)(以)(冷)(漠)(的)(、评)(价)(的)(眼)(光)(来)(看)(自)(己)(,恐)(怕)(没)(有)(人)(愿)(意)(背)(着)(上)(司)(干)(事)(情)(,那)(是)(自)(找)(麻)(烦)(。
  二)(、残)(酷)(的)(狼)(性)(文)(化)(无)(法)(吸)(引)(到)(一)(流)(的)(人)(才)(
  从)(创)(造)(性)(这)(个)(角)(度)(来)(讲)(,虽)(然)(都)(在)(努)(力)(工)(作)(,但)(工)(作)(动)(力)(也)(分)(很)(多)(种)(,而)(且)(效)(果)(完)(全)(不)(一)(样)(。我)(们)(设)(身)(处)(地)(的)(想)(下)(,残)(酷)(的)(末)(位)(淘)(汰)(,即)(效)(机)(制)(到)(底)(对)(一)(个)(人)(会)(产)(生)(怎)(样)(的)(影)(响)(。如)(果)(一)(个)(员)(工)(,他)(可)(能)(是)(一)(位)(父)(亲)(,有)(照)(顾)(妻)(儿)(的)(责)(任)(,或)(者)(是)(一)(个)(年)(轻)(人)(,有)(赚)(钱)(买)(房)(的)(压)(力)(,因)(为)(怕)(末)(位)(淘)(汰)(,怕)(业)(绩)(不)(达)(标)(,怕)(被)(团)(队)(抛)(弃)(,从)(而)(每)(天)(担)(惊)(受)(怕)(,虽)(然)(也)(工)(作)(努)(力)(,一)(天)(干)(18个)(小)(时)(,但)(效)(果)(真)(的)(会)(好)(么)(?我)(们)(今)(天)(所)(处)(的)(社)(会)(大)(部)(分)(都)(是)(以)(创)(造)(力)(为)(主)(的)(,创)(造)(和)(创)(新)(需)(要)(的)(内)(在)(的)(激)(情)(,团)(队)(的)(协)(作)(,需)(要)(一)(种)(自)(发)(的)(驱)(动)(向)(上)(的)(动)(力)(。
  狼)(性)(文)(化)(是)(不)(同)(情)(弱)(者)(的)(,就)(像)(狼)(的)(生)(存)(法)(则)(,团)(队)(协)(作)(来)(猎)(杀)(猎)(物)(,强)(者)(成)(为)(头)(狼)(,可)(以)(第)(一)(个)(分)(享)(食)(物)(,按)(照)(强)(弱)(排)(序)(,分)(享)(食)(物)(的)(等)(级)(也)(不)(同)(,但)(如)(果)(某)(个)(成)(员)(在)(捕)(猎)(中)(受)(伤)(,或)(者)(因)(为)(瘦)(弱)(而)(无)(法)(跟)(随)(狼)(群)(的)(脚)(步)(,就)(会)(被)(淘)(汰)(。这)(是)(相)(当)(残)(酷)(的)(,一)(头)(狼)(如)(果)(在)(猎)(杀)(中)(受)(了)(伤)(,无)(论)(它)(曾)(为)(这)(个)(团)(队)(付)(出)(多)(少)(贡)(献)(,成)(功)(捕)(杀)(过)(多)(少)(猎)(物)(,在)(这)(一)(刻)(,通)(通)(归)(零)(,等)(待)(它)(的)(也)(只)(有)(死)(亡)(。你)(可)(以)(说)(这)(也)(是)(优)(胜)(劣)(汰)(,适)(者)(生)(存)(,丛)(林)(法)(则)(,只)(有)(这)(样)(,这)(个)(狼)(群)(才)(会)(繁)(衍)(生)(息)(,那)(么)(试)(问)(下)(,那)(个)(受)(伤)(的)(狼)(是)(你)(本)(人)(,你)(又)(做)(如)(何)(感)(想)(呢)(?
  从)(公)(司)(老)(板)(的)(角)(度)(来)(讲)(,你)(作)(为)(一)(个)(员)(工)(,需)(要)(赡)(养)(费)(父)(母)(、妻)(儿)(,这)(与)(我)(又)(有)(什)(么)(关)(系)(,我)(只)(需)(要)(你)(作)(出)(业)(绩)(,对)(于)(团)(队)(同)(事)(来)(说)(,你)(是)(否)(被)(淘)(汰)(也)(与)(我)(无)(关)(,我)(只)(需)(要)(你)(持)(续)(为)(团)(队)(项)(目)(付)(出)(,再)(付)(出)(。人)(与)(人)(之)(间)(不)(存)(在)(任)(何)(的)(友)(谊)(,只)(有)(那)(赤)(裸)(裸)(的)(生)(存)(与)(死)(亡)(。
  也)(许)(你)(会)(说)(,这)(就)(是)(生)(活)(,这)(就)(是)(职)(场)(。但)(我)(要)(跟)(你)(说)(,这)(只)(是)(生)(存)(,而)(生)(活)(就)(像)(那)(句)(说)(得)(很)(潇)(洒)(的)(话)(,“人)(生)(不)(只)(有)(眼)(前)(的)(苟)(且)(,也)(有)(诗)(和)(远)(方)(的)(田)(野)(。”
  今)(天)(我)(们)(谈)(到)(对)(人)(,对)(人)(才)(的)(尊)(重)(,是)(所)(有)(问)(题)(的)(最)(核)(心)(。21世)(纪)(的)(科)(技)(兴)(国)(,和)(大)(国)(崛)(起)(,已)(经)(早)(就)(过)(了)(计)(件)(工)(资)(的)(时)(代)(了)(,创)(造)(力)(的)(本)(源)(是)(人)(才)(,人)(才)(的)(动)(力)(可)(以)(是)(赤)(裸)(裸)(的)(金)(钱)(,但)(是)(你)(环)(顾)(一)(下)(着)(国)(际)(上)(伟)(大)(的)(创)(业)(公)(司)(,出)(发)(点)(却)(都)(不)(只)(是)(钱)(,Facebook、Google、Tesla,更)(多)(的)(是)(对)(“事)(业)(”的)(一)(个)(执)(著)(和)(追)(求)(改)(变)(的)(动)(力)(。
  我)(们)(每)(个)(人)(都)(崇)(拜)(狼)(这)(种)(有)(灵)(性)(,高)(效)(而)(团)(结)(的)(动)(物)(,但)(这)(个)(社)(会)(的)(进)(化)(是)(尊)(重)(个)(性)(,激)(发)(天)(才)(。
  我)(很)(难)(想)(象)(,一)(个)(员)(工)(会)(在)(一)(个)(按)(季)(度)(末)(为)(淘)(汰)(,每)(天)(提)(心)(吊)(胆)(担)(心)(业)(绩)(,团)(队)(之)(间)(只)(有)(利)(益)(合)(作)(,公)(司)(对)(员)(工)(没)(有)(一)(丝)(包)(容)(,员)(工)(对)(公)(司)(没)(有)(任)(何)(忠)(诚)(的)(企)(业)(待)(下)(去)(,这)(是)(人)(性)(的)(荒)(漠)(,最)(终)(每)(个)(员)(工)(都)(会)(变)(成)(一)(部)(机)(器)(,没)(有)(思)(想)(,只)(有)(所)(谓)(“饥)(饿)(和)(金)(钱)(”的)(动)(力)(在)(趋)(势)(着)(。一)(个)(过)(了)(而)(立)(之)(年)(还)(在)(这)(种)(公)(司)(工)(作)(的)(人)(才)(是)(一)(种)(悲)(哀)(,而)(这)(种)(地)(方)(会)(真)(正)(留)(下)(一)(流)(的)(人)(才)(么)(?
  没)(有)(忠)(诚)(感)(和)(责)(任)(感)(的)(团)(队)(是)(非)(常)(可)(怕)(的)(,可)(怕)(到)(可)(以)(因)(为)(金)(钱)(驱)(动)(而)(践)(踏)(一)(切)(规)(则)(,你)(可)(以)(说)(,犯)(法)(的)(事)(情)(是)(被)(严)(厉)(禁)(止)(的)(,那)(么)(灰)(色)(的)(呢)(,不)(犯)(法)(而)(不)(讲)(人)(情)(、友)(情)(、亲)(情)(的)(呢)(?
  如)(果)(我)(们)(说)(讲)(求)(效)(率)(,那)(么)(最)(讲)(求)(效)(率)(的)(,莫)(过)(于)(军)(队)(了)(,暴)(力)(的)(机)(器)(,每)(次)(战)(斗)(都)(是)(生)(与)(死)(,每)(次)(战)(争)(都)(可)(能)(决)(定)(国)(家)(民)(族)(的)(名)(运)(。但)(军)(队)(中)(讲)(求)(团)(队)(合)(作)(却)(是)(非)(常)(人)(性)(的)(,负)(伤)(的)(战)(友)(绝)(对)(不)(可)(以)(被)(抛)(弃)(,甚)(至)(可)(以)(为)(战)(斗)(的)(胜)(利)(而)(冒)(着)(危)(险)(去)(掩)(护)(战)(友)(,这)(是)(人)(性)(文)(化)(下)(的)(团)(队)(精)(神)(,狼)(性)(的)(做)(法)(是)(抛)(弃)(弱)(者)(,末)(位)(淘)(汰)(,但)(如)(果)(战)(友)(们)(没)(有)(人)(在)(乎)(你)(的)(生)(命)(,只)(在)(乎)(击)(败)(敌)(人)(,那)(你)(又)(如)(何)(会)(去)(真)(正)(的)(拼)(尽)(全)(力)(呢)(?
  每)(个)(人)(都)(是)(这)(个)(事)(业)(不)(可)(缺)(少)(的)(一)(环)(,这)(不)(是)(用)(业)(绩)(可)(以)(衡)(量)(的)(,因)(为)(很)(难)(衡)(量)(,一)(个)(爱)(笑)(的)(女)(生)(可)(以)(让)(一)(个)(宅)(男)(型)(技)(术)(团)(队)(争)(相)(表)(现)(,一)(个)(由)(互)(助)(文)(化)(的)(企)(业)(可)(以)(让)(老)(员)(工)(都)(来)(关)(心)(新)(来)(的)(年)(轻)(人)(,而)(不)(管)(他)(是)(不)(是)(能)(帮)(我)(做)(出)(什)(么)(业)(绩)(。
  一)(个)(伟)(大)(的)(公)(司)(,与)(赚)(到)(多)(少)(金)(钱)(无)(关)(。正)(像)(我)(们)(一)(直)(在)(感)(慨)(的)(,为)(什)(么)(谷)(歌)(可)(以)(制)(造)(出)(Alphago这)(种)(可)(以)(引)(领)(未)(来)(的)(创)(新)(,而)(我)(们)(本)(土)(崇)(拜)(狼)(性)(文)(化)(的)(公)(司)(却)(穷)(得)(只)(剩)(下)(钱)(。正)(像)(之)(前)(围)(棋)(人)(机)(世)(界)(大)(战)(的)(时)(候)(,我)(们)(吐)(槽)(说)(瞧)(人)(家)(,把)(全)(世)(界)(的)(钱)(赚)(了)(,你)(还)(得)(敬)(仰)(他)(、感)(谢)(他)(。Google母)(公)(司)(Alphabet的)(市)(值)(超)(越)(苹)(果)(,登)(顶)(全)(世)(界)(市)(值)(最)(高)(的)(公)(司)(。但)(在)(OtherBets部)(分)(的)(前)(沿)(项)(目)(中)(,共)(计)(损)(失)(36亿)(美)(元)(,Google依)(旧)(疯)(狂)(不)(止)(。而)(转)(过)(身)(,我)(们)(就)(又)(崇)(拜)(起)(做)(网)(游)(的)(狼)(性)(文)(化)(了)(。成)(功)(不)(只)(是)(一)(种)(结)(果)(,更)(多)(的)(是)(一)(个)(过)(程)(,如)(果)(我)(们)(的)(出)(发)(点)(就)(错)(了)(,那)(么)(只)(能)(是)(越)(行)(越)(远)(。
  张)(瑞)(敏)(曾)(说)(过)(一)(段)(话)(,我)(很)(赞)(同)(,“在)(当)(前)(中)(国)(的)(企)(业)(还)(没)(形)(成)(自)(己)(的)(管)(理)(思)(想)(和)(管)(理)(模)(式)(,更)(没)(有)(特)(别)(有)(底)(蕴)(的)(、引)(领)(性)(的)(管)(理)(知)(识)(展)(现)(给)(世)(界)(。”而)(美)(国)(之)(所)(以)(强)(大)(,就)(是)(因)(为)(这)(些)(科)(技)(巨)(人)(的)(眼)(界)(是)(改)(变)(这)(个)(世)(界)(,充)(分)(挖)(掘)(人)(性)(渴)(望)(创)(新)(,不)(断)(进)(取)(的)(闪)(光)(点)(,强)(大)(的)(公)(司)(文)(化)(,无)(与)(伦)(比)(的)(协)(作)(与)(风)(险)(精)(神)(,才)(成)(就)(了)(美)(利)(坚)(民)(族)(称)(霸)(这)(个)(世)(界)(的)(实)(力)(。
  大)(国)(的)(博)(弈)(,本)(质)(上)(拼)(的)(是)(这)(些)(国)(家)(企)(业)(的)(实)(力)(,企)(业)(家)(的)(精)(神)(和)(伟)(大)(的)(企)(业)(才)(是)(改)(变)(这)(个)(世)(界)(的)(核)(心)(。如)(果)(狼)(性)(文)(化)(真)(的)(那)(么)(有)(效)(,为)(什)(么)(除)(了)(钱)(,我)(们)(似)(乎)(什)(么)(都)(没)(有)(留)(下)(……
  三)(、伟)(大)(公)(司)(谷)(歌)(的)(企)(业)(管)(理)(文)(化)(
  其)(实)(在)(人)(性)(文)(化)(下)(,一)(样)(可)(以)(有)(团)(队)(写)(作)(、绩)(效)(考)(核)(,充)(分)(发)(挥)(主)(观)(能)(动)(性)(。谷)(歌)(就)(是)(一)(个)(很)(好)(的)(例)(子)(,这)(里)(总)(结)(一)(些)(对)(谷)(歌)(报)(道)(关)(于)(企)(业)(管)(理)(的)(要)(点)(。
  办)(公)(区)(沙)(发)(随)(处)(可)(见)(,员)(工)(可)(以)(随)(意)(喝)(咖)(啡)(聊)(天)(,甚)(至)(分)(不)(清)(哪)(里)(是)(办)(公)(区)(,哪)(里)(是)(休)(闲)(区)(。谷)(歌)(的)(工)(作)(模)(式)(就)(是)(平)(等)(和)(倾)(听)(每)(一)(位)(员)(工)(的)(声)(音)(,我)(喜)(欢)(这)(样)(无)(为)(而)(治)(的)(文)(化)(。
  允)(许)(工)(程)(师)(们)(将)(20%的)(工)(作)(时)(间)(用)(于)(自)(己)(喜)(欢)(的)(项)(目)(,此)(举)(是)(为)(了)(鼓)(励)(员)(工)(开)(发)(新)(产)(品)(,以)(减)(少)(公)(司)(对)(互)(联)(网)(搜)(索)(广)(告)(业)(务)(的)(过)(度)(依)(赖)(。
  谷)(歌)(20%自)(由)(时)(间)(制)(度)(的)(背)(后)(,有)(一)(个)(更)(重)(要)(的)(原)(则)(,我)(们)(信)(任)(员)(工)(。我)(们)(放)(权)(给)(员)(工)(,并)(不)(会)(真)(的)(去)(衡)(量)(这)(个)(20%,我)(们)(觉)(得)(员)(工)(会)(自)(行)(调)(整)(。打)(个)(比)(方)(,如)(果)(员)(工)(觉)(得)(自)(己)(正)(在)(做)(的)(某)(个)(程)(序)(非)(常)(重)(要)(,那)(么)(,这)(个)(月)(他)(可)(以)(只)(做)(这)(个)(程)(序)(;如)(果)(员)(工)(觉)(得)(公)(司)(交)(给)(他)(的)(任)(务)(更)(重)(要)(,那)(么)(,他)(可)(能)(花)(三)(个)(月)(来)(做)(,而)(根)(本)(不)(会)(去)(碰)(这)(个)(20%。
  正)(是)(这)(样)(,除)(了)(公)(司)(布)(置)(工)(作)(之)(外)(,很)(多)(员)(工)(还)(能)(拿)(出)(额)(外)(的)(、让)(公)(司)(意)(想)(不)(到)(的)(新)(产)(品)(。其)(中)(,大)(部)(分)(小)(创)(意)(都)(出)(自)(那)(20%的)(自)(由)(时)(间)(,比)(如)(Gmail、谷)(歌)(NEWS等)(产)(品)(。你)(可)(以)(质)(疑)(,也)(许)(这)(个)(制)(度)(的)(回)(报)(只)(有)(10%,也)(有)(可)(能)(是)(20%,甚)(至)(是)(30%,但)(是)(,我)(们)(不)(能)(用)(数)(字)(来)(进)(行)(衡)(量)(,这)(个)(制)(度)(所)(代)(表)(的)(,是)(公)(司)(的)(一)(种)(自)(由)(的)(风)(气)(,这)(种)(风)(气)(也)(是)(吸)(引)(人)(的)(一)(种)(途)(径)(。
  谷)(歌)(的)(创)(始)(人)(谢)(尔)(盖)(·布)(林)(曾)(经)(说)(过)(:“我)(们)(公)(司)(的)(创)(造)(力)(就)(是)(我)(们)(的)(员)(工)(。我)(们)(以)(后)(如)(果)(遇)(到)(瓶)(颈)(,那)(一)(定)(是)(我)(们)(没)(能)(以)(足)(够)(快)(的)(速)(度)(雇)(到)(最)(聪)(明)(、最)(能)(干)(的)(员)(工)(。所)(以)(,我)(们)(必)(须)(要)(对)(员)(工)(负)(责)(,让)(他)(们)(长)(期)(留)(在)(公)(司)(,为)(公)(司)(服)(务)(。”(编)(者)(按)(,狼)(性)(文)(化)(以)(饥)(饿)(和)(淘)(汰)(为)(出)(发)(点)(,员)(工)(对)(公)(司)(的)(忠)(诚)(度)(极)(低)(,更)(谈)(不)(上)(长)(期)(为)(公)(司)(服)(务)(。)Google总)(部)(的)(工)(作)(环)(境)(轻)(松)(写)(意)(,摒)(弃)(了)(一)(般)(企)(业)(所)(具)(有)(的)(繁)(文)(缛)(节)(,处)(处)(体)(现)(以)(人)(为)(本)(的)(管)(理)(理)(念)(。
  在)(谷)(歌)(,工)(作)(就)(是)(生)(活)(,轻)(松)(愉)(快)(的)(工)(作)(环)(境)(成)(为)(创)(新)(意)(识)(的)(孵)(化)(器)(,造)(就)(了)(无)(穷)(的)(创)(造)(力)(。
  灵)(活)(高)(效)(的)(工)(作)(方)(式)(成)(为)(谷)(歌)(持)(续)(高)(速)(发)(展)(的)(秘)(诀)(之)(一)(。创)(新)(的)(意)(识)(还)(源)(自)(于)(灵)(活)(的)(小)(团)(队)(工)(作)(方)(式)(。将)(有)(智)(慧)(有)(激)(情)(的)(员)(工)(针)(对)(关)(键)(问)(题)(,分)(成)(3~5人)(的)(小)(团)(队)(,扁)(平)(化)(的)(组)(织)(,以)(海)(量)(的)(计)(算)(资)(源)(和)(数)(据)(作)(为)(支)(持)(,同)(时)(允)(许)(工)(程)(师)(抽)(出)(20%的)(时)(间)(,根)(据)(兴)(趣)(自)(己)(确)(定)(研)(究)(方)(向)(。这)(是)(谷)(歌)(组)(织)(结)(构)(的)(基)(本)(原)(则)(。
  小)(团)(队)(的)(工)(作)(方)(式)(看)(起)(来)(平)(常)(,其)(实)(却)(蕴)(涵)(着)(深)(刻)(的)(道)(理)(:在)(庞)(大)(的)(组)(织)(中)(,总)(有)(很)(多)(聪)(明)(人)(,他)(们)(可)(以)(轻)(松)(地)(找)(到)(“混)(”下)(去)(的)(方)(法)(,即)(便)(是)(复)(杂)(的)(绩)(效)(考)(核)(也)(对)(这)(类)(人)(束)(手)(无)(策)(。但)(是)(在)(有)(3~5人)(组)(成)(的)(小)(团)(队)(中)(,却)(容)(不)(得)(“聪)(明)(人)(”再)(浑)(水)(摸)(鱼)(,必)(须)(全)(力)(以)(赴)(才)(能)(被)(大)(家)(认)(可)(。激)(发)(了)(全)(体)(成)(员)(创)(造)(力)(的)(同)(时)(,进)(行)(小)(范)(围)(的)(绩)(效)(考)(核)(,所)(得)(的)(结)(论)(就)(会)(更)(加)(客)(观)(。
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